The Upanishads – An Overview
What are the Upanishads?
The Upanishads are ancient texts from India. Upanishad translates to “sit down closely”. It means to listen to instruction by a teacher. However, the word Upanishad is also means “secret teaching” or “the underlying truth”. Truths discussed in the Upanishads were introduced in earlier parts of the Veda’s. The Veda’s are the world’s oldest texts. So the Upanishads are philosophical discussions of key concepts from ancient India.
The Veda’s are the Worlds Oldest Books!
Veda means “knowledge”. The four Veda’s were compiled to express the fundamental knowledge of human existence. These works are called Shruti which means “what is heard”. The Sages who composed the Veda’s were able to interpret the vibrations of the universe. They shared their understanding orally. Oral discussions of the Veda’s were practiced for centuries before they were written down circa. 1900 – c. 500 BCE.
The Upanishads are the “End of the Veda’s” or Vedanta
The Upanishads are thought to be the “end of the Vedas” or Vedanta. For they expand, explain and develop Vedic concepts through narratives and dialogues. These narratives and dialogues of the Upanishads encourage one to engage with these concepts on a personal level.
1000’s of Upanishads were Lost
There were apparently over a thousand Upanishads, but only between 180-200 Upanishads have been discovered. Of these the most well-known are the 13 Upanishads which are embedded at the end of the four Vedas.
The 4 Veda’s
The four Veda’s are known as:
- Rig Veda
- Sama Veda
- Yajur Veda
- Atharva Veda
The Rig Veda is the oldest and the Sama Veda and Yajur Veda follow from it directly. The Atharva Veda takes a different course. All four Veda’s maintain the same vision and the Upanishads for each Veda addresses the themes and concepts expressed in that Veda.
The 13 Well Known Upanishads
- Brhadaranyaka Upanishad
- Chandogya Upanishad
- Taittiriya Upanishad
- Aitereya Upanishad
- Kausitaki Upanishad
- Kena Upanishad
- Katha Upanishad
- Isha Upanishad
- Svetasvatara Upanishad
- Mundaka Upanishad
- Prashna Upanishad
- Maitri Upanishad
Essence of the Upanishads
The Upanishads deal with the individual’s place in the universe. and the related fundamental concept of the Universal Self known as Brahman. The Upanishads discuss the Atman, the individual’s higher self, whose goal in life is union with Brahman – The Universal Self.
Central Concepts of Upanishads
Everyone is Divine
Everyone carried a spark of the divine within them & one’s goal in life was to reunite that spark with the source from which it had come.
How did life arise?
People moved and ate food and felt emotions and reproduced but, the ancient Indian sages asked, “what was it that enabled them to do these things?”
What is a Human Being?
They realised that people had minds, which caused them to think, and concepts of self, which caused them to feel. But they believe that this did not seem to explain what made a ‘human being a human being’.
The Higher Self
The sages’ proposed that there was a higher self within the body which they called the Atman. And this Atman was a part of Brahman within each individual.
The Purpose of Human Life
“Everyone carried a spark of the Divine within them and one’s goal in life was to reunite that spark with the source from which it had come.”
Duality is an Illusion
This realization of the Atman led to them to conclude that duality was an illusion. They believed that there was no separation between human beings and the Divine. There was only the illusion of separation. In the same way, there was no separation between individuals. Every one of us has this same divine essence within and everyone is on the same path, in the same ordered universe, toward the same destination.
There No Need to Look for God, the Divine dwells within us
The Upanishads state that there is, therefore, no need to look for a God because the Divine is already dwelling within. A phrase in the Chandogya Upanishad Tat Tvam Asi – “Thou Art That”. emphasises this concept. You are already what you want to become. You have to realize this.
Goal of Life is Self Actualisation
According to the Upanishads – the goal of life, is self-actualization – to become completely aware of and in touch with your higher self – so that you could live as closely as possible and in accordance with the Eternal Order of the Universe – Rta. Each individual was thought to have been placed on earth for a specific purpose which was their duty (dharma). They needed to perform their duty with the right action in order to achieve self-actualization. Your conditioned actions or karma is caused by ignorance and failure to perform one’s dharma – correct action.
Karma & Suffering
Karma or conditioning resulted in suffering. So suffering is ultimately the individual’s own fault. The concept of karma always meant that one’s actions had consequences which led to certain predictable results. The individual’s ability to manage his or her karma led one to success or failure, satisfaction or sorrow.
Reincarnation means repeating the same patterns over & over again
The transmigration of souls (reincarnation) was considered a given in that, if a person failed to perform their dharma – correct actions in life, their karma (past actions) would cause them to repeat the same patterns over and over again. This is often taken to mean the cycle of rebirth and death was known as samsara. However, one can find liberation (moksha) from samsara through the self-actualization – realising their true higher self – Atman. Moksha united the Atman with Brahman.
Western Criticism of the Upanishads
Concepts like the ones discussed above are explored throughout the Upanishads through dialogues. Western scholars equate the Upanishadic dialogues to the philosophical dialogues of Socrates as expounded by Plato.
May Western scholars have criticized the Upanishads philosophy arguing that they do not present a cohesive train of thought. The Upanishads vary in focus from one to the next and never arrive at a conclusion.
Yet this criticism completely misses the point of the Upanishads. They were not created to provide answers. They were created to provoke every individual to ask questions, to reflect, to think.
The Upanishads encourage every individuals to explore their inner selves through interaction with others who are doing the same thing.
You are Encouraged to Seek Answers for Yourself
The Upanishadic dialogues are between teacher and student, husband and wife, and in the case of the Katha Upanishad, between a youth, Nachiketa and Death. In every dialogue, there is someone who knows and someone who needs to learn it. The reader is encouraged to identify with the seeker.
Tat Tvam Asi – Thou are That
The Upanishads give you the ultimate answer in the phrase Tat Tvam Asi. However, you cannot realise its meaning without doing the personal work to discover who truly you are as opposed to who you think you are. The Upanishads encourage every person to explore their inner landscape and to interact with other who are on a similar path.
Here are the 13 main Upanishads with a brief explanation of their teaching.
This is the oldest Upanishad and is embedded in the Yajur Veda. This Upanishad deals with the Atman – the Higher Self, the immortality of this Atman, the illusion of duality and the underlying unity of all reality.
This is embedded in the Sama Veda. It repeats some content from the Brhadaranyaka but here the narrative is expressed in metrical form. This is what gives this Upanishad its name. Chanda is poetry or meter. Using meter, the concepts of Atman-Brahman, Tat Tvam Asi and dharma are further developed.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Yajur Veda. It continues the theme of unity and considers proper ritual or practices to realise this unity. It concludes by announcing the realization that duality is an illusion, and everyone is a part of the same whole.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Rig Veda. The Aitereya repeats a number of themes addressed in the first two Upanishads but it does it in a slightly different way. The Aitereya emphasizes the human condition and joys of living in accordance with dharma.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Rig Veda. It repeats themes addressed elsewhere but focuses on the unity of existence. Kausitaki emphasises the illusion of individuality which causes people to feel separated from one another.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Sama Veda. Kena develops themes from the Kausitaki with a focus on epistemology. The Kena rejects the intellectual pursuit of spiritual truth. It claims that one can only understand Brahman through self-knowledge which is experiential.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Yajur Veda. The Katha emphasizes the importance of living in the present without worrying about past or future. It discusses the concept of moksha – liberation.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Yajur Veda. The Isha focuses on unity and the illusion of duality. It emphasises the importance of performing one’s karma – conditioned actions in accordance with one’s dharma – right actions.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Yajur Veda. It focuses on the First Cause. Svetasvatara continues to discuss the relationship between the Atman and Brahman and highlights the importance of self-discipline as the means to self-actualization.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Atharva Veda. Mundaka teaches that personal spiritual knowledge is superior to intellectual knowledge. The text makes a distinction between higher and lower knowledge with “higher knowledge” defined as self-actualization.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Atharva Veda. Prashna discusses the existential nature of the human condition. It suggests devotion as the means to liberate one’s self from the cycle of reincarnation.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Yajur Veda. Maitri focuses on the constitution of Atman. It discusses the various means by which human beings suffer and how you may achieve liberation from suffering through self-actualization.
This Upanishad is embedded in the Athar Veda. Mandukya deals with the significance of the syllable of OM. Detachment from life’s distractions is important in realizing one’s Atman. Mandukya also discusses the different states of consciousness.
Engage in your Own Spiritual Journey
Any one of the Upanishads offers the reader the opportunity to engage in their own journey to discover the Ultimate Truth. Understanding the Upanishads reduces the distractions of the mind and to helps develop higher levels of consciousness.
Ultimate Truth Cannot be Understood, It has to be Experienced
It is claimed that the more one engages with these texts, the closer one comes to Ultimate Intuitive knowledge. This is encouraged by a paradox – the inherently rational, intellectual, nature of the discourses are constantly contrasted with repeated emphasis on rejecting rational, intellectual attempts at apprehending the truth. Ultimate Truth cannot be understood, it needs to be experienced.
How the Upanishads influenced the World
Translated into Persian
They were translated into Persian in 1615-1659 CE during the reign of Dara Shukoh a liberal Muslim prince who believed the Upanishads transcended all religion. He presented the works as “secret teachings” which revealed the final truths of existence.
Translated into Latin
The Upanishads were translated into Latin in 1731-1805 CE by the French Orientalist Abraham Hyacinthe Anquetil-Duperron. This brought the Upanishads to the attention of European scholars in 1804 CE.
The first English translation of the primary Upanishads was done by the British Orientalist Henry Thomas Colebrooke .
Influenced German Philosophers
The Upanishads garnered considerable attention throughout the early part of the 19th century. They were appreciated by the German philosopher Arthur Schopenhauer who declared them the equal of any philosophical text in the world. Schopenhauer’s admiration for the Upanishads encouraged Western writers to borrow from the Upanishads in their work.
Influenced Writers & Poets Across the Globe
The American poet T.S. Eliot (l. 1888-1965 CE) used direct quotes from the Brhadaranyaka Upanishad in his masterpiece The Wasteland (1922 CE).
Somerset Maugham (l. 1874-1965 CE) used a line from the Katha Upanishad as the epigraph to his novel The Razor’s Edge. The Upanishads were also central to his plot and the development of his main character.
The writers and poets of the 1950’s Beat Generation popularised the Upanishads in their works and this trend continued through the 1960s CE.
In the present day, the Upanishads are recognized by scholars as the greatest works in the world. They continue to engage many modern seekers, searching for deeper meaning in life.
Image: Cover of Breath of the Eternal – The Upanishads, Signet Classics translated by Swami Prabhavananda & Frederick Manchester.